Working Papers

Similar levels of income inequality may coexist with completely different distributions of capital and labor incomes. This paper introduces a new measure of compositional inequality, allowing the authors to distinguish between different capitalist societies. The analysis suggests that Latin America and India are rigid ‘class-based’ societies, whereas in most of Western European and North American economies (as well as in Japan and China), the split between capitalists and workers is less sharp and inequality is moderate or low. Nordic countries are ‘class-based’ yet fairly equal. Taiwan and Slovakia are closest to classless and low inequality societies.


2020/1 Coalition-Proof Stable Networks Chenghong Luo, Ana Mauleon, Vincent Vannetelbosch2020/2 Coordination on Networks with Farsighted and Myopic Agents Ana Mauleon, Simon Schopohl, Akylai Taalaibekova, Vincent Vannetelbosch

2020/3 Segregation versus Assimilation in Friendship Networks with Farsighted and Myopic Agents Chenghong Luo, Ana Mauleon, Vincent Vannetelbosch

2020/4 Endogenous Institutions: a network experiment in Nepal Giulio Iacobelli, Juni Singh

2020/5 L’enseignement supérieur peut-il être à la fois excellent et démocratique ? Jean-Paul Lambert

2020/6 Les enseignements obligatoires inégalitaires génèrent-ils des enseignements supérieurs moins démocratiques ? Jean-Paul Lambert

2020/7 Do Stable Outcomes Survive in Marriage Problems with Myopic and Farsighted Players? Peter Jean-Jacques Herings, Ana Mauleon, Vincent Vannetelbosch

2020/8 Working time reduction and employment in a finite world Jean-François Fagnart, Marc Germain and Bruno van der Linden


2019/1 Who matters in coordination problems on networks: myopic or farsighted agents?Ana Mauleon,  Simon Schopohl,  Akylai Taalaibekova, Vincent Vannetelbosch

2019/2 Distributed ledgers and financial market infrastructures  Randy Priem

2019/3 A bargaining set for roommate problem Ata Atay, Ana Mauleon, Vincent Vannetelbosch

2019/4 Risk management practices of central counterparties: European vs. third-country CCPs Randy Priem, Alexandre Girard

2019/5 Access to Justice and Economic Development: Evidence from an International Panel Dataset A. Deseau, A. Levai, M. Schmiegelow


2018/1 Communication With Optional Verification  Simon Schopohl

2018/2 Culture du redoublement dans l’enseignement obligatoire : dégâts collatéraux dans l’enseignement supérieur  Jean-Paul Lambert

2018/3 Common Ranking and Stability of Overlapping Coalitions Ana Mauleon, Nils Roehl and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2018/4 Network Formation with Myopic and Farsighted Players Chenghong Luo, Ana Mauleon, Vincent Vannetelbosch

2018/5 R&D Network Formation with Myopic and Farsighted Firms, Ana Mauleon, Jose J. Sempere-Monerris, Vincent Vannetelbosch

2018/6 Le décret inscription : la vérité si je mens (Regards économiques n°138 – Mai 2018) Benoît Decerf, Gilles Grandjean et Tom Truyts

2018/7 shadow links, Manuel Foerster, Ana Mauleon, Vincent J. Vannetelbosch

2018/8 Enseignement, il faut rééquilibrer les priorités en FWB. Jean-Paul Lambert

2018/9 Preferences and strategic behavior in public goods games. Gilles Grandjean, Mathieu Lefebvre et Marco Mantovani

2018/10 Reforming the fiscal treatment of company cars: the CoCaTax micro-simulation model. Gilles Grandjean, Christophe Speth, Tom Truyts, Fanny Vanrykel


2017/1 Matching with Myopic and Farsighted Agents , P. Jean-Jacques Herings, Ana Mauleon, Vincent Vannetelbosch

2017/2 Monopoly price discrimination and privacy: the hidden cost of hiding ,Paul Belleflamme, Wouter Vergote

2017/3 Price discrimination and dispersion under asymmetric profiling of consumers , Paul Belleflamme, Wynne Lam and Wouter Vergote

2017/4 Constitutions and Groups , Ana Mauleon, Nils Roehl, Vincent Vannetelbosch

2017/5 Antidumping as a signaling device under the WTO’s ADA non-disclosure clause , Arastou Khatibi, Wouter Vergote


2016/1 Qu’est-ce qu’un bon système d’enseignement supérieur?, Jean-Paul Lambert

2016/2 Variable Markups in the long-run: a generalization of preferences in growth models , Raouf Boucekkine, Hélène Latzer and Mathieu Parenti

2016/3 Stable Sets in matching problems with coalitional sovereignty and path dominance , Jean-Jacques Herings, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2016/4 Entry in First-price Auctions with Signaling , Olivier Bos and Tom Truyts

2016/5 On symbols and cooperation, Tom Potoms and Tom Truyts

2016/6 Internationalisation des universités en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles. Une attractivité en trompe-l’oeil, Jean-Paul Lambert

2016/7 A note on interim stability in one-to-one matching problems, Wouter Vergote

2016/8 The Eurozone deposit rates’ puzzle: choosing the right benchmark, Julien Pinter


2015/1 Net Energy Ratio, EROEI and the Macroeconomy , Jean-François Fagnart and Marc Germain

2015/2 Choix des orientations d’études et besoins de la société , Jean-Paul Lambert

2015/3 One-to-one matching problems with location restrictions , Wouter Vergote

2015/4 Strong Sustainability, Rent and Value Added sharing , Jean-François Fagnart et Marc Germain

2015/5 Rationalisation de l’offre universitaire et structuration du Paysage , Jean-Paul Lambert

2015/6 On the purpose, legitimacy and adequacy of university entry and orientation tests, Jean-Paul Lambert


2014/1 Stochastic dominance tests for momentum strategies: a boostrap versus subsampling approach, Anouk claes, Fan Wu

2014/2 On the indeterminacy of the optimal tuition fees for a monopoly university , Julien Jacqmin et Xavier Wauthy

2014/3 From Bertrand to Cournot via Kreps and Scheinkman: a hazardous journey , Xavier Wauthy

2014/4 Stability of Networks under Level-K Farsightedness, Jean-Jacques Herings, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2014/5 Auctions with Prestige Motives , Olivier Bos and Tom Truyts

2014/6 Accès à l’enseignement supérieur: un enjeu politique et économique majeur, Jean-Paul Lambert

2014/7 Enseignement supérieur : la Belgique en panne ? , Jean-Paul Lambert

2014/8 Stratégie de Lisbonne et niveau de formation. Pourquoi l’ascenceur social ne fonctionne plus en FWB, Jean-Paul Lambert

2014/9 Network formation among rivals, Gilles Grandjean and wouter Vergote

2014/10 Energy, complexity and sustainable long-term growth , Jean-François Fagnart and Marc Germain

2014/11 Can the energy transition be smooth?, Jean-François Fagnart and Marc Germain

2014/12 Strategic Communication in Social Networks , Manuel Forster


2013/1 cahier2013_1Stereotypes and typicality: their effect on relational chain, Max Bienfait, Frédéric Nils, Alain Decrop and Denis Bertinchamps

2013/2 Limited farsightedness in network formation , Georg Kirchsteiger, Marco Mantovani, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2013/3 Contractually stable alliances , Ana Mauleon, Jose Sempere-Monerris and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2013/4 Relative concerns and delays in bargaining with private information , Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2013/5 Allocation rules for coalitional network games , Jean-François Caulier, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2013/6 Trust and manipulations in social networks , Manuel Forster, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2013/7 Dominance invariant one-to-one matching problems , Ana Mauleon, Elena Molis, Vincent Vannetelbosch and Wouter Vergote

2013/8 Soutenabilité forte, rente et partage de la valeur ajoutée , Jean-François Fagnart, Marc Germain et Alphonse Magnus

2013/9 A guiding framework for ecosystem services monetization in ecological economic modelling , Mateo Cordier, Bertrand Hamaide, J. Perrez-Agundez, Walter Hecq

2013/10 Cooperation, competition and market entry , Gilles Granjean, Daniela Tellone and Wouter Vergote

2013/11 Who are you talking with? An experiment on group play and communication , Gilles Granjean,Marco Mantovani, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2013/12 The liberalization of tuition fees: a theoretical assessment , Julien Jacqmin and Xavier Wauthy

2013/13 Allocating value among farsighted players in network formation, N. Carayol, R. Delille and V. Vannetelbosch

2013/14 Constitutions and social networks , A. Mauleon, N. Röhl and V. Vannetelbosch

2013/15 Preference for redistribution and social structure , E. Schokkaert and T. Truyts

2013/16 Stochastic signaling with exogenous information , T. Truyts

2013/17 The political economy of Belgium’s return to agricultural trade protectionism , T. Truyts and M. Van Dijck


2012/1 Stereotypes about service jobs and their impact on interpersonal relationships , Max Bienfait, Alain Decrop

2012/2 Availability of Information and Representation Effects in the Centipede Game, Paolo Crosetto and Marco Mantovani

2012/3 Stereotypes about service jobs. What about their valence and centrality? , Max Bienfait, Frederic Nils and Denis Bertinchamps

2012/4 An expost view of inequality of opportunity in France and its regions, Jean-François Carpantier and Christelle Sapata

2012/5 Macroéconomie de court terme et politique climatique: Quelques leçons d’un modèle d’offre et demande globale, Jean-François Fagnart et Marc Germain

2012/6 Economie des contenus numériques: bientôt la fin du gratuit , Paul Belleflamme et Xavier Wauthy

2012/7 Platform competition and vertical differentiation, Jean Gabszewicz and Xavier Wauthy

2012/8 Recreational value of regional forests: the case of belgium walloon region , Vincent Colson, Philippe Lejeune, Jacques Rondeux and Bertrand Hamaide

2012/9 Croissance et environnement: la pensée et les faits , Bertrand Hamaide, Sylvie Faucheux, Martin Nève, Martin O’Connor

2012/10 Distance and Proximity in nature reserve site selection with spatial spread risk heterogeneity , Bertrand Hamaide, Heidi J. Albers and Gwenlyn Busby

2012/11 The timing of contests , Gilles Grandjean and Petros Sekeris

2012/12 Bargaining and delay in trading networks , Mikel Bedayo, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch


2011/1 Endogenous network formation in Tullock contests , Daniela Tellone and Wouter Vergote

2011/2 A Theory of Shared Governance in Higher Education, Julien Jacqmin

2011/3 Collusion in Repeated Auctions: a Simple Dynamic Mechanism, Wouter Vergote

2011/4 Absolutely Stable Roomate Problems, Ana Mauleon, Elena Molis, Vincent Vannetelbosch and Wouter Vergote

2011/5 Graduated Punishments in Public Good Games, Allard van der Made

2011/6 Nesting horizontal and vertical differentiation: a note, Jean Gabszewicz and Xavier Wauthy

2011/7 La régulation des industries de réseau en Belgique, Alexandre de Streel, Axel Gautier et Xavier Wauthy

2011/8 Stable and Efficient Coalitional Networks, Jean-Francois Caulier, Ana Mauleon, Jose Sempere-Monneris, Vincent Vannetelbosch

2011/9 Risk-sharing Stability and Farsighted Stability, Gilles Grandjean

2011/10 Who are the Worst-off when Preferences Matter? , Christelle Sapata

2011/11 Fire and Outbreaks and Pests, Oh My ! Spatially -correlated Risk in Reserve Site Selection , Gwenlin M. Busby, Heidi J. Albers, Bertrand Hamaide, Amy A. Ando and Stephen Polaski


2010/1 Expermimental results on the roomate problem , Elena Molis and Róbert F. Veszteg

2010/2 Coalition formation among farsighted agents, Jean-Jacques Herings, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2010/3 A characterization of farsightedly stable networks, Gilles Grandjean, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2010/4 On the measurement of Fragmentation, Jean-François Caulier

2010/5 Trade policy in the face of price and non-price strategies, Arastou Khatibi and Wouter Vergote

2010/6 Competitively neutral universale service obligations, Axel Gautier and Xavier Wauthy

2010/7 Ensuring quality provision through capacity regulation under price competition, Nicolas Boccard and Xavier Wauthy

2010/8 Quantitative versus qualitative growth with recyclable resource, Jean-François Fagnart and Marc Germain

2010/9 Myopic or Farsighted? An Experiment on Network Formation, Marco Mantovani, Georg Kirchsteiger, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2010/10 Bargaining and Delay in Patent Licensing, Ana Mauleon, Cecilia Vergari and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2010/11 Unions’ Relative Concerns and Strikes in Wage Bargaining, Ana Mauleon, Cecilia Vergari and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2010/12 Certified Emission Reductions Weights for Improved CDM Projects, Melissa François and Bertrand Hamaide

2010/13 Species Protection From Current Reserves : Economic and Biological Considerations, Spatial Issues and Policy Evaluation, Bertrand Hamaide and Jack Sheerin


2009/1 On the Nature if Price competition under Universal Service Obligations : a Note, Axel Gauthier and Xavier Wauthy

2009/2 A note on the monotonicity and superadditivity of TU cooperative games, Jean-François Caulier

2009/3 Connections among farsighted agents, Gilles Grandjean, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2009/4 Exchange of indivisible goods and indifferences : The top trading absorbing sets mechanisms, Jorge Alcade-Unzu and Elena Molis

2009/5 On the Feasibility of Perpetual Growth in a Decentralized Economy Subject to Environmental Constraints, Jean-François Fagnart and Marc Germain

2009/6 Endogenous network formation in patent contests and its role as a barrier to entryMarco Marinucci and Wouter Vergote

2009/7 7 strong_rational_sets03, Gilles Grandjean, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2009/8 The Stability of the Roommate Problem RevisitedE. Inarra, C. Larrea and E. Molis.

2009/9 Cooperative Network Games: The core and the Shapley value as link-based solutions, Jean-François Caulier


2008/1 Impact du passage à la T2A : une modélisation pour l’hôpital public, David Crainich, Hervé Leleu et Ana Mauleon

2008/2 Data Games : Sharing Pulblic Goods with ExclusionPierre Dehez and Daniela Tellone

2008/3 3 wauthy-googleLa Gratuité c’est le vol payant ! Google, le Web 2.0 et le modèle économique du gratuit : une industrie à réguler ?, Xavier Wauthy

2008/4 Market Integration in Network Industries, Ana Mauleon, Vincent Vannetelbosch and Cecilia Vergari

2008/5 Market Integration in Network Industries, Xavier Wauthy

2008/6 Endogeneous social capital in joint liability lending through mutual insurance, Wouter Vergote

2008/7 Sleeping giants or global competitors? , Jean-Christophe Defraigne

2008/8 On the Nature of Equilibria when Bertrand meets Edgeworth on Hotelling’s Main Street , Nicolas Boccard and Xavier Wauthy

2008/9 Contractually stable networks, Jean-François Caulier, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch


2007/1 On the Role of Retaliation in Trade Agreements, Alberto Martin and Wouter Vergote

2007/2 Degré d’Attractivité de la Région Bruxelloise: Quelques Indicateurs, Carole Dembour et Marianne Storme

2007/3 Teaching versus Research: the Role of Internal Financing Rules in Multi-Department UniversitiesAxel Gautier and Xavier Wauthy

2007/4 L’appropriabilité économique des biens de contenu, Jean Gabszewicz et Xavier Wauthy

2007/5 Concurrence et régulation sur les marchés de plate-forme: une introduction, Xavier Wauthy

2007/6 Network Competition in a Market where Cross Externalities Induce Vertical Differentiation, Jean Gabszewicz et Xavier Wauthy

2007/7 von Neumann-Morgenstern Farsightedly Stable Sets in Two-Sided Matching, Ana Mauleon, Vincent Vannetelbosch and Wouter Vergote


2006/1 International R&D Collaboration Networks, Huasheng Song and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2006/2 Multi-Agent Spiral Software Engineering: A Lakatosian Approach, Christophe Schinckus, Yves Wautelet and Manuel Kolp

2006/3 The Optimality of Hospital Financing System: the Role of Physician-Manager Interactions, David Crainich, Hervé Leleu and Ana Mauleon

2006/4 Hospital’s activity-based financing system and manager – physician interaction, David Crainich, Hervé Leleu and Ana Mauleon

2006/5 Networks of Free Trade Agreements among Heterogeneous Countries, Ana Mauleon, Huasheng Song and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2006/6 Université et Concurrence: Quelques Apports Théoriques Récents, Xavier Wauthy

2006/7 Les Connaissances Linguistiques en Belgique, Jonathan Van Parys and Sven Wauters

2006/8 Entry under Capacity Limitation and Vertical Differentiation: return of the Judo Economics, Xavier Wauthy and Nicolas Boccard

2006/9 Farsightedly Stable Networks Jean-Jacques Herings, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch


2005/1 Internal Capital Market Efficiency of Belgian Holding Companies, Axel Gautier and Malika Hamadi

2005/2 Microeconomic Uncertainty and Macroeconomic Indeterminacy, Jean-François Fagnart, Olivier Pierrard and Henri Sneessens

2005/3 Mencion de Calidad: Reducing Inefficiency in Higher Education Markets when There Are Networks Externalities, Elena Del Rey and Xavier Wauthy

2005/4 Strategic Union Delegation and Incentives for Mergers, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2005/5 Equilibrium Payoffs in a Bertrand-Edgeworth Model with Product Differentiation, Nicolas Boccard and Xavier Wauthy

2005/6 Market Integration and Strike Activity, Ana Mauleon and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2005/7 Higher Education Choices, Student’s Risk Aversion and Learning-to-Learn, David Bardey, David Crainich, Louis Eeckhoudt and Xavier Wauthy

2005/8 Networks of Manufacturers and Retailers, Ana Mauleon, Jose Sempere-Monerris and Vincent Vannetelbosch

2005/9 A Characterization of Stochastically Stable Networks, Olivier Tercieux and Vincent Vannetelbosch


2004/1 Biological reserves Rare Species and the Opportunity Cost of Diversity, Bertrand Hamaide, Charles S. ReVelle and Scott A. Malcolm

2004/2 RandD networks among unionized firms, Ana Mauleon, Jose Sempere-Monneris and Vincent J. Vannetelbosch

2004/3 Two-sided markets, price competition and multihoming, Jean Gabszewicz and Xavier Wauthy

2004/4 Regulating quality by regulating quantity: a case against minimum quality standards, Nicolas Boccard and Xavier Wauthy

2004/5 General education versus vocational training: How do they affect individuallabour market performance?, Pavlina Karasiotou

2004/6 Quelles frontières pour l’agglomération bruxelloise, Carole Dembour

2004/7 Le rail belge s’ouvre à la concurrence. Peut-on tirer parti de l’expérience étrangère ?, Axel Gautier

2004/8 Régulation et concurrence dans le transport collectif urbain, Aurélie Coppe et Axel Gautier


2003/1 Régulation et concurrence dans le transport collectif urbain, Susana Peralta, Xavier Wauthy and Tanguy van Ypersele

2003/2 Competition for business location: a survey Carole Dembour

2003/3 Investment in public infrastructures and tax competition between contiguous regions, Carole Dembour and Xavier Wauthy

2003/4 Education, unemployment and earnings: decomposing the effect of education on earnings, Pavlina Karasiotou

2003/5 Teaching versus research: a multitasking approach to multi-department universities, Axel Gautier and Xavier Wauthy

2003/6 Financing Infrastructure under budget constraints, Axel Gautier and Manipushpak Mitra

2003/7 Effective number of relevant parties, Jean-François Caulier et Patrick Dumont

2003/8 Information acquisition in repeated relationship, Axel Gautier and Manipushpak Mitra


2002/1 Ensuring quality provision in deregulated industry, Nicolas Boccard and Xavier Wauthy

2002/2 Quality Selection, Quotas and the Mode of Competition, Xavier Wauthy and Nicolas Boccard

2002/3 Economic and Environmental Impacts of Various Climate Policy Scenarios, Bertrand Hamaide

2002/4 Les aspects financiers des accords de la Saint-Boniface, Anne-Marie de Kerchove, Jean-Paul Lambert, Géraldine Vanderstichele

2002/5 The benefits and costs of winner picking: Redistribution and incentives, Axel Gautier and Florian Heider

2002/6 Regulation of an open access essential facility, Axel Gautier and Manipushpak Mitra


2001/1 Another perverse effect of monopoly power, Jean J. Gabszewicz and Xavier Y. Wauthy

2001/2 The Option of joint Purchase in Vertically Differentiated Industries, Jean Gabszewicz and Xavier Wauthy

2001/3 Enforcing Quality Leapfrogging through QuotasNicolas Boccard and Xavier Wauthy

2001/4 Research and development, voluntary export restriction and tariffs: a comment Xavier Wauthy

2001/5 Choix des études supérieures et motivations des étudiant(e)s, Anne-Marie de Kerchove and Jean-Paul Lambert

2001/6 How does imperfect competition in the labour market affect unemployment policies, Xavier Y. Wauthy and Y. Zénou

2001/7 Demande de traitement et risque exogène, David Crainich

2001/8 Théorie du risque et décision médicale, David Crainich


2000/1 Import quotas foster imitation in vertically differentiated duopolies, Nicolas Boccard and Xavier Wauthy

2000/2 Import Restraints and horizontal differentiation, Nicolas Boccard and Xavier Wauthy

2000/3 Betrand-Edgeworth competition and product differentiation: Hotelling revisited Nicolas Boccard and Xavier Wauthy

2000/4 On price competition with complementary goods, Jean Gabszewicz, Nathalie Sonnac and Xavier Wauthy

2000/5 Comorbidities in cost benefit analyses of health care, Han Bleichrodt David Crainich and Louis Eeckhoudt

2000/6 Bad Debts and the Cleaning of Balance Sheets: an Application to Transition Economies, Janet Mitchell


1999/1 Bertrand Competition and Cournot Outcomes: further Results, Xavier Wauthy and Nicolas Boccard

1999/2 Relaxing Bertrand Competition: Capacity Commitment Beats Quality Differentiation, Xavier Wauthy et Nicolas Boccard

1999/3 Relaxing Bertrand Competition: Capacity Commitment Beats Quality Differentiation, Hylke Vandenbussche et Xavier Wauthy

1999/4 Optimal Strategies in n-Person Unilaterally Competitive Games, Olivier De Wolf

1999/5 Banking Crises and Bank Rescues: the Role of Reputation, Janet Mitchell

1999/6 Theories of Soft Budget Constraints and the Analysis of Banking Crises,  Janet Mitchell